Finally Sevilla-Roma and Inter-Getafe will not be played this Thursday. This has been confirmed by UEFA itself, after Rome and Getafe refused to travel to protect themselves from the spread of the coronavirus. Both were scheduled to be held behind closed doors., but the agency has yielded to the request of the clubs and has ensured the safety of all members. As a result of the traveling restrictions between Spain and Italy imposed yesterday by the Spanish authorities, the following #UEL matches will not take place as scheduled tomorrow. Seville – AS Roma Internazionale – Getafe – UEFA (@UEFA) March 11, 2020UEFA has issued a statement, informing the postponement, but it still does not confirm that it will happen with the second leg or with the progress of the competition. This is the full note: “As a result of the travel restrictions between Spain and Italy imposed yesterday by the Spanish authorities, the following matches of the UEFA Europa League round of 16 will not be held as scheduled for tomorrow, March 12, 2020.• Sevilla FC (Spain) – AS Roma (Italy)• FC Internazionale (Italy) – Getafe CF (Spain)Additional decisions on the two parties will be communicated in due time. “What will happen with the Europa League?When the first leg matches are suspended, there is very little chance that the return matches will be played on the date marked (March, 19). To make it happen, duels would have to be played before that date, something unlikely given the alarm situation in Spain and Italy.So and if there is no other decision regarding the competition in general, will be ‘X Balls’ in the draw. That is, they will be framed with clubs that have exceeded the knockout stages, at the expense of what happens in their tie. Anyway, the rooms would be played from April 9 and there are hardly any dates on the calendar to square two games until then.
Agustí, who has a very good relationship with Geli, He did not hesitate to tell him that “we are all waiting to see if we return to Primera”. Remembering the past, congratulate how the club has grown because before “he was going to tow the Figueres and Palamós”. The President of Girona is satisfied with the work that has been done in recent years and “now, luckily, we we have become the reference, which is something we were looking for and there is a stability“After that, more sports and Geli talked about how he sees the team and the options they have to achieve the objective: “Once everyone competes again we will start from scratch and we will have to see how the teams evolve. There may be surprises. But our players they are with want to start. I think they will give a prudential time to train, take shape and then see how everything happens. We have a lot of quality and the expectations are good. “ The league follow your crusade to resume the competition and Girona are happy with the possibility of competing again. The rojiblanco president, Delfí Geli, I bet for a long time because the course resumes given that the Girona team intends back to First this season. Geli kept a talk last Thursday with Xavi Agustí, who was a player, coach and technical secretary of Girona, for congratulate him on his 80th birthday, and was optimistic about answering the question about what will happen to the season: “I think that soon we can start training. To see the evolution of everything, but the important thing is that can be played. I think it will go well for everyone, people will have a distraction, motivations and can be positive because this is starting to make long. People at home don’t know what to do anymore. “ By last, Geli launched an order to Agustí. So far this season he has not come to Montilivi and told him that “you will have to come to the stadium when let’s be in FirstThat is what is important. “Both had a lively moment and Agustí said goodbye with a proclamation urging him to be as optimistic as he was ambitious:” He aspires to everything that you can achieve a lot. Aim for little that then you will achieve nothing“
State Minister Joseph Harmon says he will not give up his foreign citizenship for now but will continue to serve as a Member of Parliament (MP) until the ruling by Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ).Harmon, during a post cabinet press briefing, maintained that he is not illegal, and that all government parliamentarians with dual citizenship will return to the National Assembly at the next sitting which is scheduled for April 11.“I will say that this matter is still engaging the attention and Cabinet has not made a ruling on it. In that regard, it is contemplated that on April 11th, 2019 when the National Assembly sits, that all the members of the Government side will be there,” Harmon said.He subsequently stated: “I see nothing duplicitous about it. The fact of the matter is that that Court of Appeal has dealt with the matter and the matter is now under appeal at another level. In so far as we are concerned, the Court of Appeal has made a determination on all of the matters before it and so we will abide by what the Court of Appeal has said. If at the level of the CCJ these matters are dealt with and they are definitively pronounced upon then certainly we will abide by what the Court says.”Article 155 (1) of the Constitution of Guyana states that “No person shall be qualified for election as a member of the National Assembly who (a) is, by virtue of his own act, under any acknowledgement of allegiance, obedience or adherence to a foreign power or state.”Chief Justice Roxane George-Wiltshire, in her rulings earlier this year, also made it clear that by swearing allegiance to another State, a dual citizen is not qualified to be elected to serve in the National Assembly.This ruling was upheld by the Court of Appeal.More details in the Saturday, March 30, 2019 edition of the Guyana Times.
Former Tottenham midfielder Benjamin Stambouli with ex-teammate Ryan Mason Paris Saint-Germain have announced the signing of midfielder Benjamin Stambouli from Tottenham on a five-year contract.The French midfielder, who joined Spurs from Montpellier last summer, has also been tracked by Premier League side Watford.Stambouli, who made 25 appearances for Spurs in all competitions, said: “I am delighted and very proud to become a member of the Paris St Germain family.“I wasn’t necessarily planning to leave the Premier League after one year, but when a club the size of Paris St Germain calls you, it makes your choice a lot easier.“That’s the moment when you can experience the power of attraction surrounding this club. I will now focus on my preparation.”Stambouli, whose only Tottenham goal came in a Europa League match against Partizan Belgrade in November, will join his new team-mates at their pre-season training camp in New Jersey.PSG president Nasser Al-Khelaifi said a return to France would help “rediscover a player who was full of promise when he was playing in Ligue 1”.Stambouli becomes the latest midfielder to leave Spurs this summer, following the likes of Paulinho, Lewis Holtby and Etienne Capoue out the exit door. 1
Match day tickets are still sky-high and even fans are forking out £50 or more for a game, you’re not even guaranteed to enjoy it.Fortunately though, the thoughtful people at talkSPORT have provided fans with a guide to see which Premier League club is the most exciting to watch, based on the average goals scored in matches involving them.Click the arrow above, right, to see who the most exciting – and boring – teams are! 4. Everton games average 3.4 goals 16 16 16 16 19. Stoke games average 1.9 goals 16 16 11. West Ham games average 2.9 goals 6. Bournemouth and Chelsea games average 3.2 goals 12. Crystal Palace and Southampton games average 2.8 goals 14. Tottenham games average 2.7 goals 16 16 2. Leicester games average 3.7 goals 16 16 17. West Brom games average 2.1 goals 9. Arsenal and Aston Villa games average 3 goals 16 16 16 16 5. Norwich game average 3.3 goals 3. Man City games average 3.5 goals 8. Newcastle games average 3.1 goals 16 16 15. Swansea and Manchester United games average 2.4 goals 20. Watford games average 1.8 goals (in all competitions) – Click the yellow arrow above, right, to see which Premier League club is the most exciting to watch, based on the average goals scored in matches involving them. 18. Liverpool games average 2 goals 1. Sunderland games average 4 goals
The Donegal Town Community Band will proudly display a brand new uniform at the upcoming St. Patrick’s Day Parade in the town in a few weeks time.And it’s all thanks to a massively sucessful Fundraiser in the Abbey Hotel on Saturday night when eight couples went toe to toe for a Strictly Come Dancing Final of Finalists Dance off.A surprise guest judge was internationally renowned professional dancer & choreographer; Mike Spalding who is involved in the opening and closing ceremonies of this year’s London Olympics. He flew in from London earlier in the day to join Josephine Tinneny whose family have been steeped in a 40 year dancing tradition. Local dancer; Bertie Love was the popular third judge. Interval entertainment was supplied by singer / songwriter; Emily Wheelan and the singing group, the Retrotones. Guest dancers were Pauric Kennedy and Orla O Donnell. The eight couples were put through their moves by professional dancer; Shona Tinneny who went over and beyond the call of duty to raise the standard of dancing in this type of competition to a new level.Dual MC’s; TV3’s Noel Cunningham and local MC Paul O Sullivan added variety to the compering role.On behalf of the dancers, Aidy Gallagher said they were treated royally by the organisers all through the preparation.Eddie McCaffrey and Martina O Donnell were the overall winners who donated their €1,000 winning to the Suicide Aware and support group S.T.O.P. They were sponsored by the Solis Lough Eske Castle Hotel. The eight couple and their Sponsors were:Sean Mc Dermott & Sinead Gallagher, sponsored by DMG MotorsEddie McCaffrey & Martina O Donnell sponsored by Solis Lough Eske CastleDaniel Montgomery & Sinead McGrory sponsored by Rory’s Auto Spares Ltd & DT Van HireShane Breslin & Barbara hegarty sponsored by Victor Group Ltd Emmett Cassidy & Tara Timoney sponsored by Topaz, McIntyre’s Filling StationAidy Gallagher & Eimear Carr sponsored by Donegal OystersRyan O Neil & Karen Heeney sponsored by Patsy McNulty Holiday Homes & Donegal Tyre Centre* PIC: Patrice Duffy & Brendan McMonagle, Donegal Town Community Band wiiththe winners of Strictly Come Dancing; Eddie McCaffrey & Martina ODonnell along with Ann Lyons, Solis Lough Eske Castle Hotel whosponsored the couple. Photo: Paul O Sullivan NOTES: DONEGAL TOWN COMMUNITY BAND was last modified: February 14th, 2012 by BrendaShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:NOTES: DONEGAL TOWN COMMUNITY BAND
“He’s definitely bummed,’ Angels manager Mike Scioscia said of Colon, who has refused all interview requests since hurting his shoulder. “He realizes our need for him to do what he can do. He knows the needs of the team with him being the lead dog the whole year. He’s down he can’t help us, but he also knows we wouldn’t be here without him.’ The club said Friday that Colon would have a contrast MRI exam performed on his shoulder sometime in the next few days, but Scioscia said Saturday no further tests have been scheduled. AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREWalnut’s Malik Khouzam voted Southern California Boys Athlete of the Week Colon went 21-8 with a 3.48 ERA this season and is a leading candidate to win the Cy Young Award. However, Colon has been mediocre in the playoffs throughout his career, going 2-3 with a 3.61 ERA in nine career starts. In his two postseason starts this year, he is 0-1 with a 4.50 ERA. He doesn’t get nearly the attention paid to Hideki Matsui or Ichiro Suzuki, but White Sox second baseman Tadahito Uguchi has impressed those who have seen him every day in his first season since coming from the Japanese league. “I keep saying he’s my MVP and people make fun of me,’ White Sox manager Ozzie Guillen said. “This kid can do it all; run, squeeze, hit a home run when you need it, make the plays when you need it, steal a base, give you good at-bats, and it’s not easy when you come from Japan your first year. “Every day is a learning process; new pitching, new hitters, new cities, new ballclubs, new ballparks, so many things this kid has to deal with.’ Iguchi is hitting .231 (6 for 26) with a home run and four RBIs in the playoffs while playing flawlessly in the field. “It’s amazing the way he plays,’ Guillen said. “Because of the language barrier, communication, this kid has to put a lot of things in his mind just to go out and play. To me that’s good enough; what he’s done on the field so far because this kid is so smart, he plays basic baseball, doesn’t make that many mistakes, and he’s a pretty good baseball man.’ In Arizona, starting pitchers Joe Saunders and Jered Weaver are pitching in the Fall League. Saturday in Anaheim, Jason Christiansen, who is not on the ALCS roster, threw two innings of a simulated game. “You have to look forward in some aspects,’ Scioscia said. “If we’re fortunate enough to get through this series, we might have to realign things. You don’t know what your needs are going to be.’ Casey Kotchman got his first postseason start Saturday in Game 4 as the designated hitter. “Casey gives us a left-handed bat,’ Scioscia said. “They’ve got a terrific bullpen with good lefties, but we’ve got to attack their starting pitching.’ Kotchman went 2 for 4, getting an infield single in the second inning and an RBI double in the fourth. If there is a Game 6, the Angels could go with John Lackey on three days’ rest, though Scioscia would not commit. “We’ll see,’ he said. “Let’s get there first.’ Joe Haakenson can be reached at (626) 962-8811, Ext. 2239, or by e-mail at email@example.com. 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! Angels pitcher Bartolo Colon is out with a strained muscle in his right shoulder, and now has another problem with which to deal. He’s come down with a case of the blues. Colon is not on the American League Championship Series roster and won’t be on the World Series roster if the Angels get there. He suffered the injury last Monday in Game 5 of the ALDS against the Yankees.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Hunters checked 18,776 white-tailed deer on Monday, Nov. 28, the opening day of Ohio’s deer-gun hunting season, according to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR). In 2015, 22,253 deer were reported the first day of the deer-gun season.Ohio’s deer-gun season remains open through Sunday, Dec. 4. Two additional days of deer-gun season (Saturday, Dec. 17, and Sunday, Dec. 18) are available for people to hunt with firearms. Find more information about deer hunting in the Ohio 2016-2017 Hunting and Trapping Regulations or at wildohio.gov. Past years’ harvest summaries and weekly updated harvest reports can be found at wildohio.gov/deerharvest.The ODNR Division of Wildlife remains committed to properly managing Ohio’s deer populations. The goal of Ohio’s Deer Management Program is to provide a deer population that maximizes recreational opportunities, while minimizing conflicts with landowners and motorists.Hunting PopularityOhio ranks fifth nationally in resident hunters and 11th in the number of jobs associated with hunting-related industries. Hunting has a more than $853 million economic impact in Ohio through the sale of equipment, fuel, food, lodging and more, according to the National Shooting Sports Foundation’s Hunting in America: An Economic Force for Conservation publication.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Farmers have been battling herbicide-resistant weeds for generations. A common practice for most of that time has been to rotate between different herbicides every season. But despite farmers’ best efforts, herbicide resistance has grown through the years, with some weed populations showing resistance to not one but four or five different herbicides. A new study from the University of Illinois explains why herbicide rotation doesn’t work.“If you were to ask farmers what is the one thing you can do to delay resistance evolution, they’ll say rotate herbicides. This study shows that’s not true,” said Pat Tranel, Ainsworth Professor in the Department of Crop Sciences at U of I.Herbicide resistance results from random genetic mutations that keep weeds from being harmed by a particular herbicide. When farmers continually spray the same herbicide year after year, those with the mutation, referred to as a resistance allele, survive and reproduce. Over time, the proportion of plants with the resistance allele grows.Conventional thinking says that any defense trait — in this case, herbicide resistance —should come at a cost to the plant. It might be well protected against the herbicide, but it might not grow as tall, or flower as early. When the trait reduces a plant’s reproductive output, that’s known as a fitness cost.A fitness cost to herbicide resistance should be apparent in years when alternative herbicides are used. “If plants have glyphosate resistance, but they’re sprayed with 2,4-D, for example, the majority of those plants will die because they’re not resistant to 2,4-D. But no herbicide kills 100% of the weeds, resistant or not,” Tranel said. “You have to think about the small percentage that live.“If there’s a high fitness cost to the glyphosate resistance allele, most of the surviving plants will be small or will flower late and they won’t produce many seeds. But if the fitness cost is low, those plants will produce just as many seeds as plants that don’t have the allele. Herbicide rotation relies on the assumption that the fitness cost is high.”To test that assumption, Tranel and his research team designed a simple, if time-consuming, experiment. They took female waterhemp plants with no resistance alleles and allowed them to be pollinated by males with resistances to five different herbicides. Because female waterhemp plants can produce as many as a million seeds, it was easy to get the 45,000 they needed to start the experimental population.They scattered seeds on the soil floor of a greenhouse and just let them grow. When females started producing seeds, they were collected to start the next generation. Between generations, the researchers removed all the plants and made sure no seeds remained in the soil. The cycle was repeated for six generations over three years.How could the study test the efficacy of herbicide rotation if no herbicides were sprayed? It comes back to fitness cost. Remember, the assumption is that without the herbicide, the resistance allele offers the plant no benefit, and could carry a cost. The researchers were allowing those fitness costs a chance to play out during the study.“If the resistance alleles had a high fitness cost, we should have seen them decrease in frequency or disappear over the six generations,” Tranel said.Instead, the alleles for almost all five resistance types were essentially unchanged.The allele that confers resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides was statistically lower after six generations, but the decrease was tiny in terms of real numbers.“The frequency decreased by less than 10% a year,” Tranel said. “At the rate it was decreasing, even if a farmer used an alternative herbicide for nine years, the frequency of resistance to ALS inhibitors would only be cut in half.”Waterhemp has two known strategies to ward off glyphosate-based herbicides, such as Roundup, and the researchers tested the frequency of both.“Plants with one type of glyphosate-resistance mechanism make multiple copies of the target site for glyphosate, a gene called EPSPS. And that’s what we found went away; the proportion of plants with multiple copies of EPSPS decreased about 15 percent with each generation,” Tranel said. “But I want to emphasize something: even though it decreased quite a bit, it didn’t disappear by any stretch. If you applied glyphosate, that resistance mechanism would come back even if you waited six years between applications.”The other glyphosate-resistance mechanism involves the same gene. This time, it’s a specific mutation in the EPSPS gene that guards the plant against the effects of glyphosate. The researchers found that the mutation in EPSPS actually increased about 10 percent in each generation. Tranel thinks it may have been easier for one mechanism to replace the other because they both involve the same gene.“This study tells us that fitness cost isn’t going to help you much in terms of herbicide resistance, so even long rotations aren’t going to work,” Tranel said. “I tell farmers, ‘Once you have resistance, you’re stuck with it.’ It gives us that much more incentive to do the right things to avoid resistance in the first place. That means using multiple herbicides, using a PRE and coming back with a POST. If you have escapes, getting out of your tractor and getting rid of them before they set seed. Because if they set resistant seed, this study tells you that you will have that resistance trait for life.”The article, “Limited fitness costs of herbicide-resistance traits in Amaranthus tuberculatus facilitate resistance evolution,” is published in Pest Management Science. Tranel’s co-authors include Chenxi Wu and Adam Davis, from U of I. The study was supported by a grant from USDA NIFA [grant no. 2012-67013-19343].
RELATED CONTENT TRANSCRIPTChris: Hey, welcome back everybody. This is the Green Architects’ Lounge. Making Green Affordable, or something like that. We’ll name it Part 2, or the second half. How are you doing, Phil?Phil: I’m doing great, Chris.Chris: You haven’t changed a bit.Phil: I did get a little gray just in the last summer.Chris: Dude, that happens hourly. Hourly.Phil: Yeah?Chris: Yeah. I’m going fast.Phil: It’s finally hitting. My…Chris: Forties?Phil: Yes, my forty-somethings.Chris: Yeah, I’m going blond.Phil: That hit you pretty early on, didn’t it?Chris: Yeah, it did.Phil: Nothing you can do about that, sorry.Chris: You know, I just try to look good for my age. No one’s ever asked me to model anything, so I don’t think that’s ever going to happen. Maybe J.C. Penney will call up and say, “you are a smart-looking sixty-year old that we need for these pleated Docker pants.”Phil: Well, that skirt and blouse you have on are really lovely.Chris: They match my eyes. We were talking about “making green affordable” with a high-performance house, and we started with all the “big picture” ideas. Now let’s get into the nitty- gritty.Phil: That’s right. Let’s talk about the wall section.Chris: Alright. Let’s do that.Phil: How about from the ground up?Chris: That’s a good way to do it.Phil: Let’s talk about the slab. One of the things that we didn’t go into in detail is: What kind of foundation, firstly? Because that dictates what our wall section is, really.Chris: Right. And – I don’t know about you, but – I’ve been talking a lot of my clients out of doing a basement. I don’t know if you’re the same way…Phil: We are. Which is interesting, because often the basement is really affordable square footage.Chris: Exactly. And here’s a classic conversation with a client: They come in and they say, “Oh, I’ve got to have a basement.” And we say, “Well, let’s back up. Let’s talk about it. What do you want your basement for?”Phil: “Where am I going to put my oil tank? Where are my mechanical systems going to go?”Chris: Exactly. I want to put my mechanicals down there. Storage. I want to put storage down there. Maybe so-and-so tinkers…Phil: “I need it for my water leaks. Well… where are they going to be? I’m used to that in my old house.”Chris: Exactly. “I don’t want this thing leaking on my first floor – are you kidding me??! That’s crazy!” So then we say, “Well, what if we make your house so efficient, that your mechanicals now fit inside that closet right over there? That tiny little closet? They’ll fit in there. You’ll have a compressor outside, maybe. And then, it’s all in there. What do you think?”And they say, “Well, okay.” And then you say, “And your storage. What if, I don’t know, we can give you some dry attic storage space?” Because – I’ll tell you what – when you’re doing an affordable house, isn’t one of the big things you’re fighting: storage (“Where’s it going?”)! Because every nook and cranny, every space, is so critical. We Americans have a lot of stuff, and that’s a hard mentality…Phil: Well, with an energy-efficient house, you’re probably the kind of person who is open to that conversation. Living with less.Chris: Right. I think I saw a New York Times article about a family who had a kid that just had one toy; the kid was only allowed one toy. I’m serious.Phil: Were they trying to torture the poor kid?Chris: Well, they lived their whole life that way, where there’s just one of something.Phil: All he had was one little iPad, that’s it…Chris: Yeah. Tons of apps. Poor kid. But, if he wanted a new one, then he’d get a new one. What a different mentality that would be. I wonder what that kid’s like now, five or six years later. When he gets to be a teenager, you know what he’s going to do: he’s just going to say “screw you!” He’s going to fill his room with junk the second he gets a job. “I bought these eight things. You can’t take them away from me.”Phil: So, restraint.Chris: Restraint. But, anyway, we were talking about the basement. Mechanicals: we can move them up. Think of all the problems that you can solve in terms of water issues and drainage and things like that.Phil: Right. And I’ll say, the only way to get a dry basement in New England is to not have one.Chris: Right.Phil: That’s it.Chris: Pretty much. And you can do a lot better job insulating, I think, with a slab-on-grade house.Phil: Right. So, frost-protected slabs. We’re definitely doing more of those.Chris: Same here. That’s definitely the trend.Phil: It tends to be more affordable, for sure. You have to dig less. There’s less concrete. Less resources.Chris: There’s more insulation, but, your site costs go down. Excavation, and like you say: materials of concrete and steel – which are expensive in the spectrum of materials for a house…Phil: So, the big problem, though, is: there’s less of those things; there’s more thinking for some builders who haven’t done this before. And there’s that fear factor, which is, “ka-ching!”Chris: Right. So, if you have a builder who’s comfortable with that – either comfortable learning that, and not passing on the paying for that learning curve onto your client – then that’s acceptable. But, if you have a builder who’s done that, and mastered that, that’s an asset.Phil: And if it’s a frost wall foundation, it’s not the end of the world. It is easy and quick and really predictable.Chris: And all the guys know how to do it.Phil: That’s right. And sometimes the soils will demand that you need that anyway.Chris: And again, we should – at this point – point out where you and I are: we’re in Maine, so we’re used to the northern climate. I think this is less of an issue down South, where slab-on-grade is way more common. It’s probably status quo down there.Phil: And with the soils – I mean, when I was practicing out in Colorado, the caissons were a regular thing.Chris: Oh, wow!Phil: And grade beams.Chris: Wow! I thought our soil sucked.Phil: Yeah. It’s not unusual depending on where you are. And, you know how to insulate those, Chris?Chris: No!Phil: Me neither! Let’s not talk about them. I imagine it’s similar. And with a lot of insulation…Chris: Like in Indiana, where I went to school – go Ball State! – they would pour slabs. They’re not even frost protecting. It’s just sand. It’s so homogenous out there – the soils – that they just don’t get the heaves, the frost heaves, like we get here. I mean, there are roads in our neighborhood, Phil, in our collective neighborhood, that will throw your car off the road if you’re going too fast.Phil: That’s right. So, we’re swinging two bats in the on-deck circle here in Maine. So, it should be easier in other parts of the country. Apologies to Minnesota and Canada…Chris: …North Dakota.Phil: North Dakota, for sure. So, how much insulation – what does it look like, Chris – if we’re talking about doing an affordable frost-protected slab? Where do we start?Chris: You put your insulation underneath the slab. You’re down there; you’ve got one shot at doing this. We’ve said this many times before, about slabs: If you’re not insulating, then shame on you. Really. You deserve a little bit of a spanking.Phil: Oh yeah, it’s a tremendous mistake.Chris: Right. Someone in the future would say, “Why did these idiots – idiots! – not put any insulation down underneath here? What a problem!Phil: Well, I will tell you that our energy models are not showing a huge gain in going from two to four inches.Chris: Is that right?Phil: Yeah. Not tremendous. But, enough that we should do it. Again, like you said, it’s pretty easy and we do it anyway across the board. If you’re going to do two, just do four.Chris: Right. Because you’re there. And you get one shot at it. Are you going to end up, you know, doing the 12 inches that we see in Passive Houses and near-net-zero’s on an affordable house? I mean, if you’re going great-guns affordable, you’re probably not. It’s probably not, bang for the buck, where it’s going to go. You’re going to get a darn good house with 4 inches of rigid under there. In fact, maybe it’s a good time to point out the 10-20-40-60 rule.Phil: Right. This is a Building Science Corporation rule of thumb.Chris: It’s a rule of thumb that I think has really taken off and has real teeth and real meaning and building science behind it. And, you don’t have to take it from us, you can go tothe Building Science Corporation website, which is full of… At first glance, you think “there’s not much here,” and then you start clicking and you’re like, “Holy cow!” And it’ll blow your brains.Phil: So, essentially it’s R-10 sub-slab; R-20 foundation walls; R-40 above-grade walls; and R-60 roof.Chris: Right.Phil: And at the NESEA Building Energy conference, last year (2013) – I don’t know if you saw this, Chris, but – John Straube was talking and he was asked specifically, “Where did this 10-20-40-60 thing come from?”Chris: No, I wasn’t there, but go ahead.Phil: He said, “You know what, guys? This is not an absolute rule; this is a general idea that’s pretty good. Could it be 11-19-41-58? Yeah, it could.” But, he’s saying that you keep going, even, before you reach diminishing returns. So, it could be more and you’ll be okay. It’s a good guide.Chris: Anecdotally, I know (in our office), that 10-20-40-60 really pans out. I mean: as hitting that sweet spot that we’re always looking for in terms of energy efficiency and getting that demand down. That’s usually right about where we start being able to bring down the mechanicals to a cheaper system.Phil: That’s true. I sort of – again, regardless of what Mr. Straube said – feel like I’ve failed if I don’t hit those numbers on an affordable system.Chris: Yeah. Exactly. But you and I, we’re in a different place than a lot of people in this country.Phil: That’s right. $175/square foot, again, is not affordable for some people.Chris: Right. But this is why: we’re talking about R-values like this.Phil: Yeah. What about the walls? Now, there’s a couple of different ways to do walls. We’ve talked about wall systems.Chris: There are. You’re talking about getting an R-40 wall… right?Phil: Mm-hm.Chris: I know, one of the most affordable ways for us to do that is the double-stud wall. Are you finding that?Phil: Absolutely. Without a doubt. I think we know it’s not the best wall – it’s not the wall with the least amount of risk – but if you do it right, it’s fine. The wall is fine.Chris: That was well put. It doesn’t have the least amount of risk, and I’d say there’s more work in terms of air-sealing that than some of these other systems.Phil: Yes. It’s very builder-friendly, and cellulose does not cost much money. Cellulose is pretty cheap.Chris: Exactly. Right. You’ve got to get it on site. And you’ve got to get someone to staple up the skin of it. But whether it’s 4 inches thick or 12 inches thick, all that, that I just mentioned is exactly the same.Phil: That’s right. So, if somebody give you a high number for a double-stud wall, ask them to pick it apart. Find out what that insulation number is.Chris: Yeah. Ask them to price out the cellulose itself per volume. Start with a 2×4 wall and get that volume price (or a 2×6 wall) and then extrapolate and say, “Why are you charging me more?”Phil: Or do all the math. Count bags.Chris: Yeah, exactly!Phil: It’s really what they do.Chris: A lot of times, that’s how they ensure they’ve got the right density. They know the volume of the wall and if they can get all these things in there, then they’ve done it. It’s not that scientific, but that’s how – a lot of times – it gets done in the field.So, other systems: you can do a REMOTE or PERSIST installation: an “out-sulation” wall. You can have your 2×4 stud wall, your sheathing, and then four inches of polyiso foil-faced foam.And that’s a great system that allows everything inside – the electrical, the plumbing (have at it!) – and you’re not going to mess up your vapor barrier and your air sealing.Phil: And you can’t reach dew point within that wall. But here’s “the more:” it’s more thinking.Chris: It’s more thinking. You’ve got window bucks now. It’s not business-as-usual for regular Joe-Schmoe Builder. But then, we’re not looking for those guys.Phil: So, you’d be okay if you didn’t go with that system.Chris: And there’s the Larsen truss method, which is very similar: you’ve got a 2×4 wall or something like that and you’re fastening trusses to the outside of your sheathing that are hanging off your wall, and that’s where you do your insulation, often times cellulose. Or they could be I-joists. Or you could be framing with I-joists. That’s what the Passivhaus, Katrin Klingenberg and Ecolab… that’s what they do.Phil: Pretty cool system, but I question the affordability unless you’ve done it multiple times and you’ve got it down.Chris: Exactly. Now let’s talk about panelization. Right? Start looking around your areas. We’ve got a couple of places here that will panelize walls. If your walls are truly that simple, talk to those companies about panelizing your walls and all of a sudden, you might be like, “Wow! We just saved four grand on this project by panelizing,” and there might be some labor savings.Phil: Possibly. I would say the savings would come in labor and speed.Chris: Right. And there’s a waste reduction. There’s also SIPs. You know, that’s a roll of the dice as to whether or not that’s really going to be the affordable way. I doubt it is.Phil: There’s a lot more coordination.Chris: There’s plenty of coordination and it is a lot of material costs, so… we’ll look into that.Phil: Well, the bottom line of this is that you can’t do it alone as the designer. Regardless of what you’re talking about: any of these sections, anything from Part One of this podcast to what we’re talking about right now, you need the builder as part of the conversation from Day One. You’re not going to hit affordable numbers because you’re not in charge of the numbers.Chris: Right. You’re not building it, Mr. Architect.Phil: So, you need to actually take a pass at it. Or not even. But the builder will be part of the design. And learn your place. Learn when to shut up and let him tell you what needs to be done, because you’re not going to get there.Chris: Well, to a point.Phil: At some point.Chris: Right. At some point. And right, that’s another good point: you’re probably not going out to bid with this job. I mean, you think that’s going to give you the most competitive bid – the most competitive price – but you need to know before you get to that point with your client, most likely. I mean, am I wrong there, Phil?Phil: No, not at all. It’s the best way to control costs.Chris: Alright. Well, let’s move on up to your rafters.Phil: Yeah, let’s talk about the roof here.Chris: On the roof, there’s – of course – just increasing the size of your members: 2x12s. You know, if you fill that with cellulose, you’re not going to get R-60. You’re going to be barely pushing R-50. So maybe, you’re strapping the inside, getting a little bit of extra insulation space there. Maybe, Phil, you’re going to hang some members: maybe you’re doing two-by-tens, and you’re going to use scraps of your sheathing or other members and you’re going to…Phil: Create a gusset system.Chris: Exactly. Gusset-out some 2x2s.Phil: That works great. We’ve done that a number of times. And then you get your R-60.Chris: Or maybe you’re putting the insulation right on the roof. That’s rigid insulation. But I’m not sure that’s going to be the most affordable.Phil: Again, I agree with you. We haven’t found that to be the most affordable, either. That’s more. And it’s more thinking.Chris: More thinking, and more costly materials. It might be more bulletproof from a vapor standpoint, but… there you go.Phil: So, the next option is: what if you had trusses?Chris: Oh yeah, let’s talk about making it complicated! If you’ve got a whole bunch of different rafters and they seat all differently and you’ve got all different kinds of hangers and then you’re doing hips and valleys and what-not… Your cost is going up. What if that roof is super-simple? What if it’s one-truss profile repeated?Phil: Two roof planes.Chris: Two roof planes. And what if, Phil, what about cathedral ceilings?Phil: Sounds expensive.Chris: They kind of are. Maybe you’re doing one mono-pitch truss; maybe it’s not as boring, maybe it’s not perfectly flat inside. But honestly, there’s very little that’s cheaper than doing a trussed roof with a flat insulation plane and a flat ceiling.Phil: That’s right. You air-seal underneath your insulation.Chris: Right.Phil: And you pile it on top, you pile as much as you want, you blow in…Chris: You’re fluffing it on. You’re not even doing the dense-pack stuff. You’re just fluffing it on.Phil: And then you’ll see how inexpensive this stuff really is. It doesn’t cost you much. So that, I think, is the most affordable way to go.Chris: Do you want to talk about windows? Penetrations? Things like that?Phil: Yeah.Chris: Alright. You made a good point in the last one, or one of us did, about the number of doors you have, and the entrance doors.Phil: That’s right. Show restraint. How many doors do you really need? Can you get one door in and out of this building? Really! How many ways do you need to get in? Maybe you need a back door. You definitely don’t need more than two. You’ve got to show some serious restraint, and just say, “Forget it.” And they’re not going to be French doors. They’re not going to be sliders. They’re going to be a single door that opens to the interior. Or it opens to the exterior: you actually create a tighter seal, because the wind will close the door against the gaskets. But those are the only kinds of doors that you’ll do.Chris: Now, for the window: Are we doing our awesome Intus triple-pane European windows? Maybe.Phil: Yeah, maybe.Chris: If you’re in the territory of aggressive affordability, you’re probably not.Phil: The lowest-hanging fruit is the walls. There’s a lot more wall surface area than there is glass.Chris: Right. But still, your responsibility as the architect, here… you’re still looking for good bang for the buck, for the performance. Maybe you are saying, “Fine. I’ll do vinyl.” I’m not a fan of vinyl. Ugh! But maybe you’ve traded vinyl for triple-pane, if the triple-pane’s affordable. Or maybe you trade it for a high-performance dual-pane.Phil: That’s right. You’re going to have to make trade-offs when you’re doing an affordable house. And you’ve got to figure out where you want those trade-offs.Chris: That’s right. It’s managed sacrifice. It’s needs versus desires. And, Phil, not every window has to open… does it?Phil: Not at all. We’re really spoiled. We think, “Boy! Wouldn’t it be great if…” But we know the performance goes down. Also, the larger panes of glass are going to do better than lots of smaller ones.Chris: Yeah, that’s true. And, if you can minimize well-placed windows for proper ventilation. Like always, put the glazing on the south where it’s working for you – not on the north where it’s not. And be smart about your glazing.Phil: And you’ll find some more typical windows that have high solar-heat-gain coefficient that you can place on the south that can be dual-pane.Chris: Window companies are getting better. I think it’s finally happening. We’re seeing American companies offering regional glazing, which is a really refreshing thing to see. Don’t just pick out your windows. Don’t go to Home Depot and pick out your windows. I’m not slamming Home Depot, I’m just saying, look at these… shop it around. That’s what I’m saying. And look at what you’re getting for performance.Phil: Well, we’ve talked about this before, Chris: we’ve got to do another windows episode. That was our very first one.Chris: Well, insulation was first, but…Phil: That’s right. Windows was second.Chris: So, we’re going to redo those, both of those.Phil: Here’s a huge question – as architects doing affordable homes – how do we not make these things ugly? The things we’ve described: we’ve got a box here…Chris: And we’ve slapped some big openings on the south, and one door.Phil: Yeah, that’s right. And nothing on the north. And a flat site.Chris: But let’s talk about amenities, things that always… Porches. Stoops.Phil: Garages. A carport! If you can’t afford a garage – a small carport, where you can expose some structure…?Chris: They can actually look better – to my eye – a lot of car ports can, if done well.Phil: I absolutely agree. Because you get used to seeing two big garage doors that are not going to be nice garage doors, because you don’t have the money for it.Chris: Or maybe, if there is a garage, then that workshop that was in the basement is actually in the garage, so something like that.Phil: Or don’t spend your money on the garage.Chris: Or maybe ask yourself: “Really, how often am I in that workshop? Or can I just assemble my workshop (my table saw) and then do what I need to do and… whatever.”Phil: Porches, overhangs, sunshades – a great opportunity. Play with your eave, play with your overhangs…Chris: Right. And let’s talk about proportions. And it’s a hard thing – you’ve got to go to school to get a real… Pick up Andrea Palladio. I’m not thrilled with most of his architecture, but he gets proportions. Put a human in your drawings to really get a sense of scale. I’ve seen some really ugly stuff and – hey, Architect, it’s going to be up to you. So, Phil, what advice would you give me as I’m showing you my work: “Look at this box I just drew.” What are your rules of thumb, if you have any?Phil: The big ones to me are: window composition. The way the windows get put together is such a big part of making something out of nothing, in a lots of ways. There are a lot of things we can vary with the windows. We can vary the head heights of the windows; vary the size of the windows. We’ve talked about a big fixed glass and maybe a small accompaniment. We could go to the corners – with a lot of things that architects like to do – we like to move the windows to the corners. (“An architect was here!”). But it adds a little spice, a little interest, rather than just scattering one type of window across the face of this thing with even spaces.Chris: Right. You’ve seen those houses, you drive by and you say, “Woah!” Maybe they had a builder, maybe this is a do-it-yourselfer – it’s sort of a proportion and a placement thing. And not every window has to open, right, Phil?Phil: You’re right.Chris: I mean, one affordable way to do this is to take the operation out. If you have a bank of fivewindows, it’s nice if they all open, but you could save some money by having three open, or two.Phil: And then you could get one really big window that’s fixed. And that’s going to be more affordable, actually, in terms of cost per square foot.Chris: That’s right. Windows are a place where you may be really doing some of that controlled sacrifice we had talked about. Are you going to do the Intus triple-pane, European tilt-turn?Phil: Right. Maybe you’re not.Chris: I mean, hopefully you are. Hopefully, that was something you were able to make happen. Sure, it was probably the PVC ones, and they’re probably white, but maybe even that you can’t afford. When you hit that budget ceiling…Phil: Right. And you have to make a decision. There’s more wall than window. You’d rather have that R-40 wall and save double-glazed windows with pretty good solar heat gain coefficient.Chris: Right. And manufacturers are getting better out there. They’re starting to make climate-zoned glazing. It’s a great sign. Good job, Cardinal – I guess, we should say…Phil: Yeah, who else? There aren’t too many.Chris: …for starting to listen to a lot of designers out there. Selling to different climates is a great thing. So, don’t just walk into Lowes or Home Depot and pick up your window and say, “That’s the one.” Look at those numbers. Are you in a cold climate? You’ll want that solar heat gain coefficient. If you’re in the South, and you’re in a hot climate, then you don’t. You know? You want that to be much less.Phil: That’s right. If you’re here listening to this, then you should know that. And if not, consider yourself yelled at.Chris: Right. Go look at a great blog about windows. Don’t listen to our previous podcast on windows. We’re going to redo that one.Phil: The information was okay.Chris: It was, but man, it was dated – because it was pre-European tilt-turn window; it was right when that was happening… the Revolution, we can call it.Phil: You know, Chris, one of the things that I can always look at and say, “Boy! This is an affordable house,” because it looks cheap: the roof; the roof pitch. I mean, if you’re a builder and you say, “You know what? A 6:12 truss is going to be the cheapest way to do it,” please resist.Chris: Or even a 4.Phil: Or even a 4. Just don’t do it, because it’s going to look…Chris: Like a double-wide.Phil: Yeah. It’s the worst thing you can do.Chris: Right. Keep that character. I would agree. Because it might be, you’re paying a little bit more in materials for the envelope – but probably not that much when you price it out – for the aesthetics that you get. What else, Phil?Phil: Simple details. Exterior and interior.Chris: Right. On the interior: Does everything have to be trimmed out? No, it doesn’t. In fact, you can do some really clean details. Go for the clean, crisp, elegant look. That can really go a long way. Maybe you have sheetrock returns, right?Phil: right. And sometimes there’s a pushback because you want a more traditional home, but you have to decide your priorities. You know, it’s a good idea to start with a list of your priorities at the outset, and then you’ll decide what you want to do. What’s more important: that you don’t have vinyl siding; that you don’t have triple-glazed windows?Chris: Right. Because in an affordable house, that’s what it’s all about. What is sacrifice? What is a need? What is a desire? And that is a real process that you go through every step of the way.Phil: How the houses meet the ground are another one. That’s a real telltale of — “Boy! Ewww! I can’t really look at that house.”Chris: It’s just slammed into the ground and then they put a pressure-treated three steps up to it with a pressure-treated rail with a door smack in the thing…Phil: That’s right. And the foundation is poured two and a half feet above the ground because it was easier to build that way, and then you’ve got this swath of concrete around the base. And it really looks like it just landed there.Chris: Maybe we can bring that down – work on that grading – it was probably just as easy to get that within 8 inches. It’s probably just as easy to do a nice covered stoop, a porch…Phil: And think about landscaping. That’s something you can do with your own hands. Don’t neglect that.Chris: I’m sorry: you know, there’s a bunch of landscape architects who are about to e-mail us now about telling the client, “Oh, you can do that yourself,” because, you know…Phil: I didn’t say, “Don’t get somebody to design it for you.”Chris: Right! I think that pretty well does it. I think we’ve spent enough time on making green affordable. I don’t have any Hot Zigs.Phil: We’ll double-zig next time, Chris.Chris: Okay, good. When I asked you about Six-Digit Ideas, you said…Phil: Well, my Six-Digit Idea is how to make a living designing affordable green homes.Chris: Right. That is a Six-Digit Idea. Hey, while we’re at it, speaking of making a living from affordable homes, why don’t you take this opportunity – because you’re not going to plug yourself, so do it. You’re on the cutting edge here, trying to do some modular, affordable green homes exactly like the ones we’re talking about, and that’s one of the impetuses for this podcast. So, plug it, man. What’s going on with you?Phil: So, it’s our new initiative. It’s a side-project for Kaplan Thompson Architects. It’s called BrightBuilt Homes, and it’s (what’s the opposite of predecessor?) the progenitor of the BrightBuilt barn, our first net-zero project. It’s a series of modular homes that we’ve created (right now, we have nine homes). We also do custom, and we’re working with a local modular builder and we’re starting to talk to modular builders in different parts of the country to produce these homes. It’s a system that really hones in on a lot of the things we’ve been talking about: the affordable, simple, modular, built-fast… And we’re hitting anywhere from $175- to as low as $135/square foot for true net-zero homes.Chris: And that’s a big deal.Phil: So, maybe we can make the six digits with those. We’ll see.Chris: Well, I hope you do make at least five.Phil: Well Chris, I just happened to see a really pretty thing on the board in your office. Tell us about that.Chris: Well, you guys can skip ahead of you don’t care much.Phil: It looks really great. It’s a perfect idea.Chris: I was working with Chris Corson on that; it’s called “The One House” and the “one” is spelled with zeros, as in zero-net-energy – so it’ll be hard to Google, but whatever… The whole goal with that is: for $325,000, you get a Passivhaus that’s net-zero and it’s Universal Design. It’s one of those deals where, honestly, I was frustrated with another project that kept having the pushback and it was big. Every once in a while, it’s nice not having a client. I love my clients, and they’re awesome, but a lot of times you think, “Man, if I could just do a simple… ahhhh!” There’s a need. You can see it out there. And you’re doing it with BrightBuilt. If someone could walk in and say, “I want that one” – $325,000 and it’s delivered and done and net-zero and I can grow old in it and it looks cool. I mean, I think there’s a real…Phil: That’s huge! I mean, it’s beautiful; it looks great. It’s on the mark; it’s very elemental.Chris: Like any great idea, it starts with, “Step one: I find an investor!” I find a bank; I get a loan. Ah, anyway… So there’s another shameless plug.Phil: That’s okay. That’s why they’re Six-Digit Ideas. Tthey’re not completely there yet.Chris: Yeah, that one’s maybe a four-digit idea… Well, we’ll see.[The episode closes with a song by Elenore Friedberger: “I Won’t Fall Apart on You Tonight.”] Subscribe to Green Architects’ Lounge on iTunes— you’ll never miss a show, and it’s free! PODCAST: Making Green Affordable, Part 1PODCAST: How to Choose the Right Mechanical SystemPODCAST: Net Zero Energy Homes: Part 1My Forays Into Multifamily Affordable HousingAn Affordable Passivhaus Comes to PittsburghNew, Affordable, and Green in a Historic NeighborhoodAffordable-Home Development Uses Net-Zero PrefabsAffordable Urban Green in Philly We end the episode with some shameless plugging of our own work. Then, of course, Phil takes us out with a new tune that we should be listening to in the studio. It’s ‘I won’t fall apart on you tonight’ by Eleanor Friedberger.Enjoy. Part Two of this episode brings us to construction details for high-performance affordable homes. Again, I feel the need to point out that we are not talking about low-income housing or housing that makes a difference between shelter and non-shelter. I’m talking about high-performance homes that will compete, on a financial level, with those cheap vinyl boxes that litter suburbia and urban areas alike.Phil and I have refreshed our drinks and are ready to talk about building envelope construction from the bottom up. Let’s get started.The Highlights:Foundation: Can we get rid of the basement? Frost-protected slabs seem to be the best bang for the buck in a high-performance market. In a less demanding market, a frost wall and isolated slab would be a good choice.Walls: Double-stud walls seem to be a strong choice. Dense-packed cellulose, possibly the greenest insulation, is also quite affordable from a material standpoint. The Larsen truss method is also effective with the right builder. Panelization could also be a cost-effective option.Roof: Keep it simple. Remember that hips, dormers, and multiple profiles and pitches are costly. Simple, flat-bottomed trusses are hard to beat from a cost perspective.Windows: Sorry, but you might not be able to afford those awesome triple-pane European windows. Maybe if you’re willing to go with vinyl, and be frugal with your window quantity and operation, you can.Aesthetics: A home is not going to be very sustainable if people want to knock it down from day one. All these cost-saving measures are going to push you toward making a home that looks like a double-wide or a shoe box. Proper proportions, window placement, roof pitch, and treatment of exterior features and landscaping can make an incredible difference. Figure out how to do more with less and keep the details simple.